The "valvenest" for a water softener is made of a minimum of six valves. The easiest way to understand how the water and brine flows through the valvenest is to see this picture.
The top flange attaches to the upper side port of the softener tank. This in turn connects to the top distributor. The bottom flange of the valvenest attaches to the lower side port of the tank. This is connected internally to the hub and lateral bottom distributor.
The regeneration cycle is as follows: